What is a Router ?

 The majority of people are unable to distinguish between a hub, a switch, and a router. While all three of these devices are identical, the way they manage data differs.

Ethernet cables for router

Know about a HUB first of all :

A hub is a system that connects all of your network devices on an internal network. It's a device that accepts Ethernet connections from network devices and has several ports. A hub isn't considered to be intelligent.

Since it doesn't sort data or have any intelligence on where the data should be sent. A  hub only knows when a system is connected to one of its ports. As a result, every time a data packet arrives at one of the ports, it is copied to all of the others. As a result, data packets are visible to all devices connected to the hub.

When a data packet arrives at one port, the hub simply rebroadcasts it to all other ports with devices connected to them.

Power hub

For example, if this red circled computer were to connect with this blue circled computer, the issue is that the data would also be sent to these other computers, even though it was not intended for them.

As a result, not only does this raise security issues, but it also generates excessive network traffic, wasting bandwidth.

Know about a SWITCH :

It's a lot like HUB. It's also a device that accepts Ethernet connections from network devices and has several ports. A switch, unlike a hub, is an intelligent computer. A switch will actually learn the physical addresses of the devices connected to it and store them in its table as MAC addresses.

Thus, unlike a node, when a data packet is sent to a switch, it is only directed to the intended destination port, while a hub would simply rebroadcast the data to all ports.


As an example, if this computer decided to communicate with this computer over here, the data packet would arrive at the switch, which would then look up the MAC address in its table of matching ports and send the data to the appropriate port. The data packet will then only be sent to that computer. That is the primary distinction between a hub and a switch.

As a result, switches are favored over hubs because they eliminate any unwanted network traffic. As a result, a hub only recognizes devices that are physically attached to it. A switch can also identify individual devices that are connected to it because it keeps track of their MAC addresses.

To share data within a local area network, hubs and switches are used. For instance, consider your home network or a company. They aren't used to exchanging data with people outside their network, such as on the internet.

Since a computer must be able to read IP addresses in order to share or route data outside their own network to another network, such as the internet. IP addresses are not read by hubs and switches. This is where the router comes into picture.


                                                       Diagrammatic symbol of router
A Router is a device that does just as its name suggests. A router is a system that uses IP addresses to route or forward data from one network to another. When a data packet arrives at the router, the router examines the IP address to decide if the packet is intended for its own network or for another network.

The router receives the data packet if it is determined that it is intended for its own network. It sends it to another network if it isn't intended for its own network. As a result, a router serves as the network's gateway.

When a device sends data to the network's router, the router examines the IP address of the data packet and then forwards the data out across the internet to the next router, which then forwards the data to the desired network's router, and finally to the expected destination computer.

overall Working of router      Router, switch, hub

This is how routers work in a nutshell.

You will get an overall picture of router network if u clearly notice the above two images.

Networks are created with hubs and switches, and networks are connected with routers.

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