Two wheeler security-Algorithm

This is the continuation of the Two-wheeler Theft prevention system…

Two wheeler security



The system is designed to prevent vehicle theft by implementing a password-based authentication system to initiate a vehicle’s ignition. In order to authenticate a valid user, the system is designed to ask the user for a secure password to start the vehicle. To get a password from the user, the system uses two ways - one is to get a password through Bluetooth, and the other is to receive the password in the form of SMS.

Not limiting the security mechanisms only to the popular password-based authentication, the system is also designed to provide security by using a method called Dynamic Geo-location. In this method, a virtual fence of desired radius (distance) is created dynamically. 

Whenever the vehicle is accessed later, the system calculates the distance between the previous vehicle location – which is stored in the microcontroller's memory and the current vehicle location by using the Haversine Distance Calculation method.

The calculated distance is then compared with the specified fence radius to ensure the vehicle’s security. This method serves to provide an additional and dynamic aspect to the vehicle security system.

In Bluetooth-based authentication, users have to enter the password in their smartphone and send it to the security system. This communication is facilitated by a Bluetooth terminal application which can be found as an open-source application in the respective smartphone’s app stores.

Once the system receives the password from the user via Bluetooth, then the system’s algorithm checks whether the received password is valid to initiate the ignition. If found valid, the system will allow ignition. If the system found the password to be incorrect, then the system will wait until the user enters the correct password.

Another method that the system uses to authenticate valid users is SMS-based. The system is equipped with a GSM module that can receive and send SMS. Users can also send their request for vehicle’s ignition with a valid password to the security system in the form of SMS. The system then validates the request by checking the password and then decides whether to allow or to hold the ignition.

In both ways, if the system found the password to be correct, the microcontroller of the system sends a signal to relay which then facilitates the vehicle’s ignition.

The system design not only includes an authentication system to validate the user, but also a location tracking system that can help us in tracking the vehicle. With the help of the GPS module which is included with the system, the user can get the vehicle’s real-time location. 

If the user wants to know the vehicle’s location, he/she can send a request to the system for location tracking in the form of SMS. The system’s GSM module receives the request and sends it to the microcontroller of the system which then processes the request and gets the vehicle’s location (latitude and longitude) from the GPS module and sends it to the user with the help of the GSM module in the form of SMS.

The system, therefore, can help in locating our vehicle in real-time as well as in protecting our vehicle from invalid access.


A geofence is a virtual boundary around a physical location. Static geo-fencing is a preset set of boundaries that may be used as a geo-fence. A geo-fence, such as a radius around a point location, might be dynamically constructed.

Implementation of Dynamic Geofencing:

❖ In the system, the concept of Dynamic geofencing is applied by using the Haversine formula.

❖ Given two locations on a sphere and their longitudes and latitudes, the haversine formula calculates the great-circle distance between them.

❖ Haversine formula finds application in many areas – including Vehicle navigation system, Satellite navigation systems, Security systems, and more.

❖ In the project, the distance between vehicle parked location and vehicle starting location is found using the Haversine method.

❖ The fence radius is pre-set based on the owner’s requirement.

❖ Whenever any user attempts to start the vehicle, the Haversine distance is compared with the fence radius to verify the attempt.

Given latitudes and longitudes of two locations, the Haversine formula evaluates the distance between two points on a sphere.

d = distance between two locations (in Kms)

r = radius of the Earth (6371 Kms)

Haversine Distance

In a nutshell...

It is obvious to find that the primary mode of personal transportation in many of the developing countries like India is still two-wheelers. People in urban areas lack the necessary infrastructure to park their vehicles safely, particularly during night times.

It gives ways for criminals to indulge in crimes like vehicle theft. In most countries, particularly in India, vehicle theft is reported as the least solved crime. The designed system can help us to prevent such crimes. We hope this project will provide helping hands to people in solving the issue.

The designed system can validate the user with the help of a password he/she provides and allows the vehicle’s ignition if the password is correct. Thus, the system can help prevent unauthorized third persons from accessing our vehicle. Also, with the help of GPS and GSM modules, the system can be used to get the real-time location of our vehicle which makes vehicle tracking easy.

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